What is Limestone?
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the form of the mineral calcite. It most commonly forms in clear, warm, shallow marine waters. It is usually an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation of shell, coral, algal and fecal debris. It can also be a chemical sedimentary rock formed by the precipitation of calcium carbonate from lake or ocean water … read more from Geology.com
Invertebrate Fossils of Kansas
Kansas has many fossil–bearing rocks at the surface, mostly limestone, sandstone, and shale. Limestone is composed mostly of the mineral calcite, or calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which is secreted by various animals and plants–such as oysters, corals, and algae–that live in aquatic, mostly marine, environments. Sandstone and shale, on the other hand, are made up of sediment that eroded from other rocks. Sandstone, as its name suggests, is made up of sand grains, bonded together by natural cement. Shale, on the other hand, is composed of compacted clay- and silt-sized particles too small to be seen without a microscope.
Most limestone (in Kansas and elsewhere) was deposited in warm, shallow seas, such as the ones that covered Kansas intermittently during the Pennsylvanian, Permian, and Cretaceous periods. These warm, shallow seas were not only good for making limestone, but also for preserving the organisms that lived in these seas. The calcium carbonate ooze that collected on the sea floors made a perfect burial ground. Thus, Kansas limestone contains many fossils; indeed, some are made up almost entirely of fossils … read more from Kansas Geological Survey
GEOLOGY, GEOMORPHOLOGY AND GEOHYDROLOGY OF THE FLINT HILLS
… The Flint Hills are underlain by lower Permian limestone, shale and evaporites. This bedrock generally dips gently toward the west or northwest. Local variations in bedrock dip are found over the crest of the buried Nemaha uplift. Erosion of interbedded shale and limestone strata has resulted in landscapes with steep east-facing escarpments separated by gentle west-sloping cuestas–Figure 2. Thick cherty limestone units weather to produce residual chert lag deposits that are highly resistant to chemical breakdown. Such residual chert is responsible for maintaining high topographic relief and gives the Flint Hills their name. Unconsolidated sediments are common, especially within river valleys and on some upland areas. Soils are developed in residual (weathered) bedrock material, alluvial deposits, and loess sediment … read more from Emporia State University